A widget that does not require mutable state.

A stateless widget is a widget that describes part of the user interface by building a constellation of other widgets that describe the user interface more concretely. The building process continues recursively until the description of the user interface is fully concrete (e.g., consists entirely of RenderObjectWidgets, which describe concrete RenderObjects).

Stateless widget are useful when the part of the user interface you are describing does not depend on anything other than the configuration information in the object itself and the BuildContext in which the widget is inflated. For compositions that can change dynamically, e.g. due to having an internal clock-driven state, or depending on some system state, consider using StatefulWidget.

Performance considerations

The build method of a stateless widget is typically only called in three situations: the first time the widget is inserted in the tree, when the widget's parent changes its configuration, and when an InheritedWidget it depends on changes.

If a widget's parent will regularly change the widget's configuration, or if it depends on inherited widgets that frequently change, then it is important to optimize the performance of the build method to maintain a fluid rendering performance.

There are several techniques one can use to minimize the impact of rebuilding a stateless widget:

  • Minimize the number of nodes transitively created by the build method and any widgets it creates. For example, instead of an elaborate arrangement of Rows, Columns, Paddings, and SizedBoxes to position a single child in a particularly fancy manner, consider using just an Align or a CustomSingleChildLayout. Instead of an intricate layering of multiple Containers and with Decorations to draw just the right graphical effect, consider a single CustomPaint widget.

  • Use const widgets where possible, and provide a const constructor for the widget so that users of the widget can also do so.

  • Consider refactoring the stateless widget into a stateful widget so that it can use some of the techniques described at StatefulWidget, such as caching common parts of subtrees and using GlobalKeys when changing the tree structure.

  • If the widget is likely to get rebuilt frequently due to the use of InheritedWidgets, consider refactoring the stateless widget into multiple widgets, with the parts of the tree that change being pushed to the leaves. For example instead of building a tree with four widgets, the inner-most widget depending on the Theme, consider factoring out the part of the build function that builds the inner-most widget into its own widget, so that only the inner-most widget needs to be rebuilt when the theme changes.

Sample code

The following is a skeleton of a stateless widget subclass called GreenFrog:

class GreenFrog extends StatelessWidget {
  const GreenFrog({ Key key }) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return new Container(color: const Color(0xFF2DBD3A));
  }
}

Normally widgets have more constructor arguments, each of which corresponds to a final property. The next example shows the more generic widget Frog which can be given a color and a child:

class Frog extends StatelessWidget {
  const Frog({
    Key key,
    this.color: const Color(0xFF2DBD3A),
    this.child,
  }) : super(key: key);

  final Color color;

  final Widget child;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return new Container(color: color, child: child);
  }
}

By convention, widget constructors only use named arguments. Named arguments can be marked as required using @required. Also by convention, the first argument is key, and the last argument is child, children, or the equivalent.

See also:

  • StatefulWidget and State, for widgets that can build differently several times over their lifetime.
  • InheritedWidget, for widgets that introduce ambient state that can be read by descendant widgets.
Inheritance
Implemented by

Constructors

StatelessWidget({Key key })
Initializes key for subclasses.
const

Properties

hashCode int
The hash code for this object. [...]
read-only, inherited
key Key
Controls how one widget replaces another widget in the tree. [...]
final, inherited
runtimeType Type
A representation of the runtime type of the object.
read-only, inherited

Methods

build(BuildContext context) Widget
Describes the part of the user interface represented by this widget. [...]
@protected
createElement() StatelessElement
Creates a StatelessElement to manage this widget's location in the tree. [...]
debugDescribeChildren() List<DiagnosticsNode>
Returns a list of DiagnosticsNode objects describing this node's children. [...]
@protected, inherited
debugFillProperties(DiagnosticPropertiesBuilder description) → void
Add additional properties associated with the node. [...]
inherited
noSuchMethod(Invocation invocation) → dynamic
Invoked when a non-existent method or property is accessed. [...]
inherited
toDiagnosticsNode({String name, DiagnosticsTreeStyle style }) DiagnosticsNode
Returns a debug representation of the object that is used by debugging tools and by toStringDeep. [...]
inherited
toString() String
Returns a string representation of this object.
inherited
toStringDeep([String prefixLineOne = '', String prefixOtherLines ]) String
Returns a string representation of this node and its descendants. [...]
inherited
toStringShallow([String joiner = ', ' ]) String
Returns a one-line detailed description of the object. [...]
inherited
toStringShort() String
A short, textual description of this widget.
inherited

Operators

operator ==(other) bool
The equality operator. [...]
inherited